In the recent past, the attention of town planners has been on urban design that helps counteract the causes of chronic diseases. But the origins of town planning demonstrate that it has an important role to play in the management of infectious disease, too. JCU Associate Professor Lisa Law discusses how planning and urban design could change our cities in the aftermath of COVID-19.
“It was with improving people’s health in mind, that planning originated,” Lisa says. The foundational moments of town planning and urban design sprang from public health concerns and the desire to ease the spread of disease.
In quickly growing cities like London, Paris, and New York measures were introduced to separate waste removal from drinking supplies, to zone heavy industry away from residential neighbourhoods, and to provide wider boulevards and greenspace for leisure and exercise.
Fredrick Law Olmsted designed New York City's Central Park to be the lungs of the city.
For the past few decades, the public health origins of planning and urban design have narrowed to centre on chronic diseases. “We’ve created these cities where people are just using cars, they’re not walking,” Lisa says. “As a result, we’ve needed to think about chronic health, heart disease, obesity, and even asthma. And so, that’s what planning has been thinking about.”
While the focus on chronic disease has had some definite health benefits, Lisa says COVID-19 has exposed a few problems with the way we design and plan cities. High density living, for example, is a necessary part of many city plans. As Lisa notes these towers often “don’t have balconies, and there’s one central point of the lift that increases the likelihood of contamination”.
Georges-Eugène Haussmann redesigned Paris to include wide boulevards to improve light and airflow.
Given how essential access to fresh air, the outdoors, and visually seeing other people has become in these days of quarantine and isolation, Lisa thinks a balcony revival might be on the cards. “When you look at the videos of Italians out on their balconies, socialising with each other and singing, you realise how important they are. I think that there might be a renewed emphasis on balconies.”
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Ultimately, Lisa says, “there is a lot of work that can be done that COVID-19 has exposed.”
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Feature image: Shutterstock